القائمة الرئيسية

الصفحات

آخر الأخبار

عقيدة آتون فى الفكر الاخناتونى : المميزات والصفات والاناشيد


المستخلص من رسالة البحث

يتبادر الى ذهن الاكثرية من الباحثين وصف اخناتون بضعف الشخصية وبأنه كان ألعوبه بيد عائلته (والدته وزوجته) وبيد المحيطين به من اتباعه ، لكن حقيقة الاحداث لا تتفق مع هذا الرأي وهذا ما حاولت التركيز عليه في بحثي هذا . فاذا كان ضعيفاً ليس من المعقول ان يقوم بما قام به هذا الملك من الدعوة الى عقيدة دينية جديدة بأفكارها الوحدوية ويبدع في صياغة الاناشيد لوصف الهه الجديد المتفرد على بقية الالهة ، وهذه الظاهرة جديدة في الديانة المصرية اياً كان الدافع وراء تلك الدعوة سواء كان دينياً بحتاً ام سياسياً او اقتصادياً او اجتماعياً مغلف بغلاف ديني اراد من وراءه ضرب كهنة آمون وتقليص سلطاتهم وتحجيم دورهم ووضع حد لنفوذهم . كان "اخناتون" شخصاً حالماً متفكراً ومتأملاً يميل الى التفاؤل وحب الحياة وهذا ما انعكس على عقيدته الدينية الداعية الى حب الحياة ، بدليل حبه المفرط لعائلته (زوجته وبناته) وهذا نلمسه من تصرفاته مع عائلته في العمارنة فعندما كان يتنزه في العربة الملكية او عند ظهوره في شرفات قصره يقوم بأحتضان وتقبيل زوجته وبناته وهو أمر جديد في الحياة المصرية . لكنه كان ذا شخصية ترفض العمل العسكري والحربي شأنه شأن والده الملك " امنوفس الثالث " في ذلك وربما يعود السبب الى ظروف عصره (انفتاح مصر على البلدان المجاورة ودخول الكثير من التأثيرات الاسيوية ) فأستغل تعلمه على يد كهنة مدينة هليوبوليس فقدم لنا عصارة فكره على شكل عقيدة دينية (عقيدة آتون) .
About the research

Amenophes the fourth (Akhenaton) was considered the first king who called worshiping one God and rejecting worshiping many Gods as the ancient Egyptians were used to. The one God for him was Aton, the great living Sundisk. His doctrine was based on worshiping the sun it self whose rays extended like hands that granted its son on earth, the king, millions of lives and gave all that through him to all of the world. To distinguish his God from other ones, he designed for him the following features : 1. His God had no similie or equivalent; therefore in comparison to other Egyptian Gods which were pictured as humans, animals or both, there was no one sculpture of Aton. 2. There was no place in his doctrine for the tripling (husband, wife and son) that most of the old religions, including the Egyptian, were used to. 3. Aton was a God for all people and not only for the Egyptians. 4. He did not accept or recognize old legends and traditions. 5. There was no mentioning in his doctrine of the battles that God of Sun was to launch when passing to the other world. 6. His doctrine was based on adhering to Matt, daughter of Raa who was very widely worshipped and that meant truth, equality and protocols as the bases of the creation. 7. Akhenaton ended all types of sorcery, including magic, which the priests were doing in the old Egyptian religion. He tended to think of life and not of death. 8. He advocated some old funeral rituals like embalmment, presenting eucharists and depicting souls as birds. 9. The rituals of worship were based on chanting songs with music and there was a group of male and female singers and musicians who were performing during the worship process at day outside the gates and the enterances. In spite of the strength of his pantheistic religions ideas and though it became the official religion of the state during his era, his doctrine did not succeed to infix in the minds of the old Egyptians and that was because of many reasons : 1. The simples ofple people did not comprehend the details of his doctrine. They considered him as a prophet and a son of Aton whom he should worship and thus they worshipped this God through worshiping his son, the kink. As a result, when the king died, people stopped worshiping this God. 2. The simple people did not accept his doctrine to the extent that might make them leave what they inherited from their fathers and grandfathers towards Gods. 3. Aton’s followers in posed his doctrine on people by force and they did not consider progression and wisdom in this concern. He did not spread his doctrine by himself in the other Egyptian cities. Besides, he ran away from the capital Tiba because he was unable to confront the priests and then built a new capital to his state. 4. He was unable to gain new supporters to his doctrine because it did not provide anything new for the poor people. 5. His mildness in running the affairs of his state made those who were close to him interfere in his decisions. 6. Detorieration of the political situation started in the satellite states of the Egyptian empire particularly Syria and Palestine. 7. His entourage started plotting against him succeed. but they did not succeed. However, they seized the opportunity when he died and did not leave a strong heir who believed in his doctrine. All that led to go back to the old religion and even to the old capital





تعليقات